As he mentioned towards the end of his passage, one of the differences he states is, “1. Signs are what a doctor sees, symptoms are what a patient experiences.” if i might add that when he means what a doctor “sees” also means what is smelt, felt, tasted(in rare cases of diagnosis), hear, and sees or the 5 senses. This is the difference that he is talking about when differentiating between a sign and a symptom. A simpler way to word this is that it is all observed by perspective. A fever can be felt and seen by a doctor making it a sign but it can also be a symptom do to the fact that the patient also experiences the fever. So you are right, but technically it is not a special case because there are also other symptoms/signs that fall under this category.
The doctor will ask about your baby's symptoms and do an examination. He may ask about a family history of UTIs because the tendency to get them can be genetically inherited.
If your baby's doctor suspects a UTI, he'll need to collect a urine sample and check it for infection and inflammation with a urinalysis and urine culture. It's important for the doctor to verify that your baby has an infection and determine which bacteria are causing it so he can prescribe the correct antibiotic.
The challenge is that the doctor needs to collect a "sterile" urine sample, or one that hasn't been contaminated by the bacteria that are always present on your baby's skin. This is hard to do with a baby or young child who can't urinate on command or follow special instructions.
Most likely, the doctor will use a catheter to obtain a sample. He'll clean your baby's genitals with a sterile solution and then thread a tube, or catheter, up the urethra to get urine straight from the bladder. Your baby may cry during this procedure, but it's safe and routine and – while it can be uncomfortable – usually takes less than a minute.
Another option, not used as often, is to collect urine directly from the bladder by inserting a needle into the lower abdomen.
The doctor may be able to get preliminary results by using a urine dipstick or by examining the urine under a microscope in the office. If he sees evidence of infection from these initial results, he may start treatment right away. If he sends the sample to a lab for testing, it may take a day or two to get the results.
The doctor may recommend other tests, as well, because UTIs can be a sign that there's something wrong with your baby's urinary tract. Problems that cause UTIs include blockages and a condition called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), in which urine from the bladder backs up into the kidneys. VUR is found in 30 to 40 percent of babies and young children who have UTIs.
The tests that your baby's doctor may recommend include:
Reasons for treatment of bladder stones include recurring symptoms and risk of urinary tract obstruction. Some stones can be dissolved using dietary modifications and/or medications. Small stones in female dogs may possibly be removed by urohydropropulsion , a nonsurgical procedure. Urohydropropulsion is performed under sedation by filling the bladder with saline through a catheter, holding the dog vertically, and squeezing the bladder to expel the stones through the urethra. Bladder stones can be removed surgically by a cystotomy , opening of the bladder. Stones lodged in the urethra can often be flushed into the bladder and removed, but sometimes a urethrotomy is necessary. In male dogs with recurrent urinary tract obstruction a scrotal urethrostomy creates a permanent opening in the urethra proximal to the area where most stones lodge, behind the os penis . In male cats, stones lodge where the urethra narrows in the penis. Recurrent cases can be treated surgically with a perineal urethrostomy , which removes the penis and creates a new opening for the urethra.